Then, I found some inspiration from seeing the gorgeous felt ornaments that Leah Joly has been making with her middle school girls...and, as luck would have it, the power was miraculously restored!
I am so happy with the way that this is turning out!
Here are two aha's!
1. After connecting my project with alligator clips to ensure that the circuit works properly, I discovered that I didn't have a clip running to my + (positive pin). This confused me, because the circuit still worked perfectly. So, I attached an alligator clip to the + pin and connected the other side of the clip to the clip connecting my speaker to the LilyPad and discovered that this caused the volume of my speaker to plunge dramatically. Although I don't yet understand why this is the case, I wonder whether that might have something to do with why the speaker on Leah's "ugly sweater" isn't louder. (Update: Nope, it doesn't.)
2. There are different numbers that people look at when they are coding music. Some people use the frequencies associated with musical notes, but others use a number called a "half-cycle delay." Both may be used, as long as the code consistently uses one or the other.